Southwestern Journal of International Law

Southwestern's Journal of International Law (formerly Southwestern Journal of Law and Trade in the Americas) complements Southwestern's extensive course offerings and faculty expertise in international and comparative law. Participation on the Journal allows students to develop their legal writing and research skills along with their substantive knowledge of topics covered by the Journal.

The Journal publishes scholarly notes and articles contributed by students and members of the legal community and sponsors related symposia. In doing so, the Journal explores areas such as international insolvency, environmental law, international trade issues, NAFTA, international arbitration, privatization in Central and South American countries, immigration, human rights, international crime, and a host of other comparative issues. Recent symposia, with proceedings later published in the Journal, have included "2021: International Law Ten Years From Now," "The Future of the Exclusionary Rule: American and International Perspectives," "Arctic Sovereignty: Cold Facts, Hot Issues," "Abandoning the Inquisitor: Latin America's Criminal Procedure Revolution," "Antitrust and Intellectual Property in Global Context," and "CAFTA and Commercial Law Reform in the Americas."

Any student in good academic standing who has completed at least the first-year day or SCALE program or at least the second-year evening or PLEAS program may compete in the summer Write-On Competition to become a member of the research staff. Staff members are required to participate in a two-unit seminar taught by one or more of the Journal's advisors during the fall semester. The seminar focuses on journal research and writing skills. The seminar also offers a unique opportunity for students to research and write on any topic involving international law that interests them, with the guidance and assistance of faculty members. Research staff members who are recognized for outstanding contributions to the Journal are selected to serve on the editorial board during the subsequent year.

Issues, Subscriptions & Submissions

The Journal is published two times annually, in February and May. Current issues can be ordered from the Journal. Unless otherwise requested, the Journal is mailed at bulk rate. For some overseas subscribers, delivery via airmail may be more reliable than standard bulk rate service.

Current Subscription Rates Commencing Volume One

  • $30.00 / year (domestic)
  • $35.00 / year (foreign)
  • Single copies: $17.00 (plus $5.00 for foreign mailing)

Note: If a notice of termination is not received by the Managing Editor before the expiration of a subscription, the subscription will be automatically renewed. Unless a claim is made for non-receipt of an issue within six months after the mailing date, that issue will not be supplied free of charge.

Change of Address

Send to the address below at least 45 days before the date of the issue for which the change is to take effect. The Post Office will not forward copies unless the subscriber has provided extra postage. Duplicate copies will not be sent.

Please address all correspondence regarding subscriptions to:

Managing Editor
Southwestern Journal of International Law
3050 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, CA 90010
Phone: (213) 738-6857

Current Issue

  1. Vol. 27, No. 1, 2021


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)

    2020 Symposium: Fighting in the Law's Gaps



    Maintaining Command and Control (C2) of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems: Legal and Policy Considerations (PDF)
    John Cherry & Durward Johnson

    Legal Challenges or "Gaps" by Countering Hybrid Warfare-Building Resilience in Jus Ante Bellum (PDF)
    Morten M. Fogt

    Challenges in Regulating Lethal Autonomous Weapons Under International Law (PDF)
    Shane R. Reeves, Ronald T. P. Alcala & Amy McCarthy

    The Principle of Proportionality in Maritime Armed Conflict: A Comparative Analysis of the Law of Naval Warfare and Modern International Humanitarian Law (PDF)
    David T. Lee


    Notes & Comments

    The Right To Be Forgotten Does Not Apply Outside the European Union: A Proposal for Worldwide Application (PDF)
    Katherine G. Vazquez

    Armenia and the Battle to Defeat Ethno-Nationalist Attacks on the Istanbul Convention (PDF)
    Mariam Ghazaryan

    Improving Outcomes for New Mothers in the United States  (PDF)
    Julia Wood

    State Responsibility for Authorizing Arms Exports: Expanding the Substantive Obligation Under Common Article One to the Four Geneva Conventions (PDF)
    Enrique Martinez

    Copyright 2021 Southwestern Journal of International Law

Recent Issues

  1. Vol. 26, No. 2, 2020


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)

    2020 Symposium: Fighting in the Law's Gaps

    Introductory Remarks: Introduction to Fighting in the Law's Gaps (PDF)
    Kenneth Watkin


    Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Where It Stands In 2020  (PDF)
    Kenneth Watkin

    Fifty Years On: The Normalization of United States Military Operations in Cambodia (1969-1973) As a Mirror of Fighting in the Law's Gaps (PDF)
    Joshua Kastenberg

    Cyber Pillage (PDF)
    Christopher Greulich & Eric Talbot Jensen

    Through the Looking Glass: Re-Imagining Legal and Legitimate Force in the Contemporary Operating Environment (PDF)
    Thomas W. Oakley
    Evolving Role of the Judge Advocate in the 21st Century: From Operational Law to National Security Law (PDF)
    Michael W. Meier
    The Right to Intervention in an Internal Conflict of States: The Case in Yemen (PDF)
    Eisa Al-Enezy & Nada Al-Duaij

    Notes & Comments

    Modern(izing) Art: The Need For a Centralized Registry (PDF)
    Haley Cohen

    #MORALSTOO: The FIlm Industry Must Implement an International Morals Clause (PDF)
    Allyn Davidson

    Saying "I Don't" to Child Marriage: Creating a Federal Minimum Marital Age Requirement Through the Treaty Power  (PDF)
    Caylin Jones

    Copyright 2020 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  2. Vol. 26, No. 1, 2020


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)

    2019 Symposium: Twenty-Five Years After Argentina's AMIA Bombing: Justice vs. Impunity

    Keynote Address: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights' Observer at the AMIA Bombing Trial (PDF)
    Claudio Grossman


    The Use of Evidence Provided by Intelligence Agencies in Terrorism Prosecutions:  Challenges and Lessons Learned from Argentina’s AMIA Bombing  (PDF)
    Leonardo Filippini

    The AMIA Special Investigation Unit: An Overview of its History and a Proposal for the Future (PDF)
    Agustín Cavana

    Acting as Private Prosecutor in the AMIA Case (PDF)
    Alberto L. Zuppi

    Notes & Comments

    Knocking Down the One-Room Brothel in Hong Kong (PDF)
    Virginia Wong

    America’s Scarlet Letter: How International Law Supports the Removal and Preservation  of Confederate Monuments as World Heritage of America’s Discriminatory History (PDF)
    Blake Newman

    Nuclear Weapons and the Need for a No-First-Use Agreement Between the United States and South Korea for North Korea  (PDF)
    Ryan Chang

    Copyright 2020 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  3. Vol. 25, No. 2, 2019


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)

    Twenty-Five Years After Argentina's AMIA Bombing: Justice vs. Impunity

    The International Tactics of the AMIA Case: The Relevance of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in the Pursuit of Justice (PDF)
    Gastón Chillier


    A Doctrine of Precedent in the Making: The Case of the Argentine Supreme Court’s Case Law (PDF)
    Alberto F. Garay

    Parallel Lines on the Road to Stare Decisis: A Response to Professor Alberto Garay (PDF)
    Joerg Knipprath

    Argentina’s Path to Legalizing Abortion: A Comparative Analysis of Ireland, The United States and Argentina (PDF)
    Andrea F. Noguera

    Notes & Comments

    A Bundle of Sticks in Zero G: Non-State Actor Mining Rights for Celestial Bodies (PDF)
    Alexander Lewis

    That Should Not be Protected: Rethinking the United States Position on Hate Speech in Light of the Interpol Repository (PDF)
    Joseph Lorant

    The Foreign Agents Registration Act in the Age of the Russian Federation: Combating Interference by Russian Media in the United States (PDF)
    Karlie D. Schafer

    Copyright 2019 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  4. Vol. 25, No. 1, 2019


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)


    Luncheon Keynote
    Fake News: Reflections From History (PDF)
    Russell L. Weaver

    Defamation And Invasion Of Privacy In The Internet Age (PDF)
    Neville L. Johnson, Douglas L. Johnson, Paul Tweed & Rodney A. Smolla

    Fake news, Free Speech And Democracy: A (Bad) Lesson From Italy? (PDF)
    Roberto Mastroianni
    I Voted For What? (PDF)
    Gabriel Latner

    Fake News From A Legal Perspective: The United States And South Korea Compared (PDF)
    Ahran Park & Kyu Ho Youm

    Nigeria's Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act And Threat Of Sanctions By Western Countries: A Legitimate Case Of Human Rights Advancement Or What? (PDF)
    Dr. Obiajulu Nnamuchi

    Notes & Comments

    Reviewing A Ban On Transgender Troops From An International Perspective (PDF)
    Cindy K. Suh

    Controlled Chaos: A Proposal For An International Code Of Conduct In The Live Concert Context (PDF)
    Joseph Mendoza

    International Transfer Pricing And The Elusive Arm's Length Standard: A Proposal For Disclosure Of Advance Pricing Agreements As A Tool For Taxpayer Equity (PDF)
    Chi Tran

    Copyright 2019 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  5. Vol. 24, No. 2, 2018


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)


    Tuberculosis In India: A Human Rights Approach To Healthcare (PDF)
    Dipika Jain & Brian Tronic

    Peace In Israel And Palestine: Moving From Conversation To Implementation Of A Two-State Solution (PDF)
    Kenneth L. Lewis, Jr. 

    Notes & Comments

    Sex, Lies, And Videotape: Considering The ABC Case And Adopting The DSSH Method For The Protection Of The Rights Of LGBTI Asylum Seekers (PDF)
    M. Yanick Saila-Ngita

    The Necessity For a Permanent Disincentive: Examining The Use Of Chemical Weapons With A Focus On Syria's Civil War (PDF)
    Michelle Almary

    South Korea Maternity Leave: How U.S. Law Could Be Less Burdensome To Employers And Provide More Protection For Women In The Workplace (PDF)
    Olivia Kim
    Treating The International Child Sex Tourism Industry As A Crime Against Humanity (PDF)
    Raven Washington

    Copyright 2018 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  6. Vol. 24, No. 1, 2018


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)

    Freedom of Information Laws on the Global Stage: Past, Present, and Future

    John Moss and the Roots of the Freedom of Information Act: Worldwide Implications (PDF)
    Michael R. Lemov & Nate Jones

    Ralph Nader, Lone Crusader? The Role of Consumer and Public Interest Advocates in the History of Freedom of Information (PDF)
    Tom McClean


    Argentina's Solution to the Michael Brown Travesty: A Role for the Complainant Victim in Criminal Proceedings (PDF)
    Federico S. Efron

    Martial Law in India: The Deployment of Military Under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958 (PDF)
    Khagesh Gautam

    Notes & Comments

    A Critique of Perinçek V. Switzerland: Incorporating an International and Historical Context is the More Prudent Approach to Genocide Denial Cases   (PDF)
    Shant N. Nashalian

    A Cute Cowboy Stole Our Money: Apple, Ireland, and Why the Court of Justice of the European Union Should Reverse the European Commission's Decision (PDF)
    Chantal C. Renta

    Book Review

    Philippe Sands, East West Street: On the Origins of "Genocide" and "Crimes Against Humanity" (2016) (PDF)
    Vik Kanwar

    Copyright 2018 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  7. Vol. 23, No. 2, Spring 2017


    Full Issue (PDF)

    Table of Contents (PDF)

    Notes & Comments

    Arbitrability in Bilateral Investment Treaties: The Case that Applied International Law to Justify its Non-Application (PDF)
    Carlo Brooks

    The TPP and Beyond: The Vital Role of Judicial Discretion (PDF)
    Haik Gasparyan

    University Adjudication of Sexual Assault: How Affirmative Consent Can Help Close the Gap(PDF)
    Michelle Lewis

    Rethinking Copyright Termination in a Global Market: How a Limitation in U.S. Copyright Law Could Be Resolved by France's Droit D'Auteur (PDF)
    Andrew Paster 

    Achieving the Copyright Equilibrium: How Fair Use Law Can Protect Japanese Parody and Dojinshi (PDF)
    Yoshimi M. Pelc

    Contracting for Blue Gold: An Examination of the Legal Designs Surrounding Private Water Delivery (PDF)
    Shannon Royster

    The Time Does Not Fit the Crime: Eliminating Mandatory Minimums for Nonviolent Drug Offenders in Favor of Judicial Discretion(PDF)
    Ava Shahani

    Copyright 2016 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  8. Vol. 23, No. 1, Fall 2016


    Opening Remarks (PDF)
    Susan Westerberg Prager & Hon. George H. King

    Thoughts of Fifty Years of Changes in the Central District (PDF)
    Marc M. Seltzer, Hon. Manuel L. Real & William Deverell

    The Enrique "Kiki" Camarena Murder and its Aftermath Panel Discussion (PDF)
    Hon. Gary Feess, Hon. Robert C. Bonner, Paul Hoffman & Manny Medrano

    The Martyrdom and Avenging of Enrique Camarena-Salazar: A Review of Caselaw and Scholarship After Thirty Years (PDF)
    Arthur F. McEvoy

    Judges Teaching Rule of Law Abroad Panel Discussion (PDF)
    Bryant Garth, Hon. Lourdes Baird, Hon. Ronald Lew, Hon. Beverly Reid O'Connell, Hon. David Carter, & Hon. Barbara Rothstein

    Federal Judges and Rule of Law Initiatives: An Epilogue with Notes for Scholarly Inquiry (PDF)
    Juliana Ramirez

    The Central District Of California’s Court Programs (PDF)
    Amanda Goodman, Hon. George H. King & Hon. Otis D. Wright

    Keynote Address How International Law Became A Four-Letter Word (PDF)
    Hon. M. Margaret Mckeown

    Log Cabin Republicans V. United States: Litigating “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Panel Discussion (PDF)
    Danielle Hart, Hon. Terry J. Hatter, Jr., Dan Woods, Col. Christopher Miner, Hon. Virginia Phillips & Erwin Chemerinsky

    The Role Of Research, Litigation And Comparative International Policy In Ending The U.S. Military’s “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy (PDF)
    Nathaniel Frank

    Log Cabin Republicans: International Experience with Military Inclusiveness and the End Of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell (PDF)
    David B. Cruz

    Marootian V. New York Life Insurance Company: Litigating Armenian Genocide Insurance Claims Panel Discussion (PDF)
    Hon. Zaven V. Sinanian, Hon. Dickran M. Tevrizian, Richard G. Hovannisian & Michael J. Bazyler

    The Armenian Genocide And The Ruse Of Protective Dispossession (PDF)
    Richard G. Hovannisian

    The Unfinished Business Of The Armenian Genocide: Armenian Property Restitution In American Courts (PDF)
    Michael J. Bazyler & Rajika L. Shah


    The El Monte Sweatshop Slavery Cases Panel Discussion (PDF)
    Gowri Ramachandran, Hon. Audrey B. Collins, Julie Su, Scott Cummings & Muneer Ahmad

    Copyright 2016 Southwestern Journal of International Law

  9. Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 2016

    ABA Task Force On International Trade Legal Services

    It's a Small World After All: A Global Tour of Transnational Regulatory Changes Affecting You!

    Foreign Lawyers: Energizing the U.S. Practice of Law (PDF)
    Hon. Jonathan Lippman, Chief Judge of the State of New York and New York Court of Appeals (Retired)

    Jose Siderman Human Rights Lecture

    How International Law Can Eradicate Torture: A Response to Cynics (PDF)
    Juan E. Mendez, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment


    Designing an Emergency Arbitration Mechanism for Afghanistan: A Composite of Successful Models from the International Community (PDF)
    Najibullah Hakimi

    Human Dignity and Punishment in Judaic and Islamic Law: War and the Death Penalty (PDF)
    Marvin Lim

    Gentrification and the Right to Housing: How Hip Becomes a Human Rights Violation (PDF)
    Emily Ponder

    Notes and Comments 

    Enough is Enough: FIFA Must Incorporate Principles from the Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 to Combat Ongoing Executive Committee Corruption (PDF)
    Ali Eghbal

    El Gran Canal de Nicaragua: When Government Infrastructure Infringes on the Land Rights of Indigenous Communities (PDF)
    Juliana Ramirez

    Copyright 2016 Southwestern Journal of International Law 

  10. Vol. 22, No. 1, Fall 2016


    The Global Struggle for Women's Equality

    Gender-Based Asylum Post-Matter of A-R-C-G-: Evolving Standards and Fair Application of the Law (PDF)
    Blaine Bookey

    Changing the Face of Politics: Electing More Women (PDF)
    Lindsay Bubar and Kimberly Ellis

    Iraqi Women Confronting ISIL: Protecting Women's Rights in the Context of Conflict (PDF)
    Lisa Davis

    The Status of Women in Elected Office (PDF)
    Bettina Duval

    Survivors in the Criminal Justice System (PDF)
    Sabrina Talukder


    Precluding the Statute of Limitations? How to Deal with Nazi-Looted Art After Cornelius Gurlitt (PDF)
    Phillip Hellwege

    Notes and Comments

    A Stream of Hope: Why Music Streaming Licenses Will Turn Around China's Music Industry in Spite of the Rampant Piracy of Music (PDF)
    John Baldivia

    Uncertainty and Innovation: The Need for Effective Regulations to Foster Successful Integration of Personal and Commercial Drones (PDF)
    Michael Calvo

    Blocking Pro-Terrorist Websites: A Balance Between Individual Liberty and National Security in France (PDF)
    Amanda Goodman

    Copyright 2016 Southwestern Journal of International Law 

  11. Vol. 21, No. 2, Spring 2015


    Making the Case: Rule of Law In The Emerging Development Agenda

    Introduction: Rule of Law and the 2015 UN Sustainable Development Goals (PDF)
    Dr. Isabella D. Bunn

    The Case for Rule of Law and Development: Issues of Definition, Methodology, and Measurement (PDF)
    Elizabeth Andersen and Gowri Janakiramanan

    Rule of Law, Environment and Sustainable Development (PDF)
    Daniel Barstow Magraw

    Advancing the Environmental Rule of Law: A Call for Measurement (PDF)
    Alexandra Dapolito Dunn and Sarah Stillman

    Rule of Law in the Emerging Development Agenda: On Finding the Optimal Role for Investment Treaties (PDF)
    Timothy J. Feighery

    Post-2015 Development Goals for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women (PDF)
    Aileen A. Pisciotta

    Pacta Sunt Servanda: Nuclear Weapons and Global Secure Sustainable Development (PDF)
    Jonathan Granoff

    A Call to Action for Rule of Law and Development (PDF)
    Christopher Marshall

    Epilogue: Rule of Law and the 2015 UN Sustainable Development Goals (PDF)
    Don Scott De Amicis


    Targeting Cyber Arms Dealers Who Directly Participate in Hostilities (PDF)
    Collin Allan

    Building a Two-Fold Structure in Resolving Political Disputes on the Korean Peninsula: Case Study on the Kaesong Industrial Complex (PDF)
    Yi Seul Kim

    Can Employee Stock Ownership Plans Improve Corporate Governance Standards in Latin American Countries? (PDF)
    Ramiro Salvochea

    Notes and Comments

    Without a Grain of Salt: Evaluating International Permitting Schemes in Light of Industrial-Grade Desalination (PDF)
    Kenneth P. Korosi

    Warning! This Product May Cause Heart Disease, Diabetes, or Just Make You Fat: Using the International Strategy Requiring Warning Labels on Tobacco as a Bluebrint for Regulating Soft Drinks (PDF)
    Christina Marquez

    Drilling for Disclosure After API v. SEC: Incentivizing Voluntary Payment Transparency in the Resource Extraction Industry Through Exemptions to Section 1504 of the Dodd-Frank Act (PDF)
    Imran Rahman

    Unpaid Internships in the Entertainment Industry: The Need for a Clear and Practical Intern Standard After the Black Swan Lawsuit (PDF)
    Diana Shaginian

    Copyright 2015 Southwestern Journal of International Law 

  1. Submissions

    The Southwestern Journal of International Law invites authors to submit lead articles which focus on novel legal developments, emerging global issues and ongoing legal conflicts in the area of international law. The Journal strives to produce lead articles that are especially pertinent to the dynamic intricacies of international law where technology, nationhood and divergent forms of legal theories and histories collide. Submissions that critique, compare and analyze the law of a single country or region outside the United States are welcome, as well as comparisons of law between the U.S. and other nations.

    The Journal accepts submissions from jurists, professors, practitioners and students. Manuscripts should be typed or prepared on a computer and submitted in English with text double-spaced and footnotes single-spaced. Footnotes should comply with The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (20th ed. 2015), and authors must be prepared to provide any cited source upon request. Submissions will be accepted on the understanding that their content has not been published elsewhere.

    With their submissions authors should include an abstract of approximately 250 words and a resume or C.V. These documents should include a direct email address and phone number at which authors can be reached during the entire review process.

    Submissions should be in Word or WordPerfect format. The Journal greatly appreciates all submissions and attempts to notify authors of acceptance or rejection as soon as possible.


    The Journal accepts submissions on a rolling basis. Nonetheless, to be considered for the Winter issue, articles should be submitted by August; to be considered for the Spring issue, it is best to submit articles by December.

    Please send submissions/questions to:

    Southwestern Journal of International Law
    3050 Wilshire Boulevard
    Los Angeles, California 90010-1106
    Phone: (213) 738-6857

    The Editing Process

    The editorial board comprised of J.D. candidates reviews articles once they are received and makes the final decision regarding publication. The faculty advisers of the Journal may be consulted during the evaluation of articles.

    If the article is accepted, the Editor-in-Chief sends a packet of information to the author, including a contract. Once the publication contract has been signed, an article team is assembled and the technical and substantive editing of the article commences. Once this editing is complete, the author is sent a final version of the article for review. After the author's review, the article is reviewed by the Journal's editorial board only for technical errors before being sent to the publisher.

  2. Current Members


    Abigail Lombardo

    Managing Editor

    Arman Avagyan

    Senior Articles Editor

    Magdalena Mirisch-Krueger

    Special Projects Editor

    Alexander Navi

    Lead Articles Editors

    Chloe Graham
    Rachel Feigelson
    Kristina David
    Kevin Culpepper

    Associate Editor
    Chelsea Zaragoza

    Sultan Alshawa
    Vivian Chen
    Juliet Di Pietro
    Lauren Espina
    Nicolas Gomez
    Jacob Halajian
    Brian Infante
    Dorna Khazeni
    Vivian Kim
    Dean Matsuyama
    Andrew Meily
    Bianca Rector
    Annie Shin
    Paulina Silva
    Jessica Smith
    Bita Tahmasbi
    Julia Unger
    Dulce Velasquez
    Jenna Whelan
    Ke Yang
    Andrea Yeam
    Emma York-Spaeth

    Faculty Advisors

    Jonathan Miller
    Natalia Anthony

  3. Write-On Competition

    To be considered for Law Review or Law Journal membership, students must participate in the Write-on Competition and have completed at least the first-year day, second-year evening, second-year PLEAS/Part-time Day programs or the first year of SCALE. The competition takes place immediately following spring final exams (transfer students should refer to alternate dates below).

    The Write-on Competition requires submitting a short paper (maximum seven pages, double-spaced) in response to a closed-universe problem. No outside research is permitted, and students may not consult outside sources. Students will only have access to a downloadable copy of the problem from the Law Review and Law Journal Write-on Competition Canvas page.

    All submissions must be submitted through the Law Review and Law Journal Write-on Competition Canvas page. The deadline for submitting a Write-on Competition paper will be strictly enforced. Under no circumstances will the deadline be extended. Neither the Law Review nor the Law Journal are responsible for any difficulties students may face in uploading their submission.

    Please direct questions to: Law Review, Law Journal or the Student Affairs Office.